Brentwood’s versatile timetable allows students at any grade level to take advantage of the many Advanced Placement (AP) options offered at our school. Over 1000 post-secondary institutions in the USA and Canada regularly grant advanced placement into a second year course or first year credit to students achieving AP examination results of 4 or higher. The AP program is administered by the College Board in Princeton, New Jersey. AP examinations are offered annually in May throughout North America. The examinations are graded from 5, indicating the student is extremely well qualified, to 1, the low point on the scale. Our students write AP exams here on campus and routinely achieve excellent results.
AP English Language & Composition 11
Grade 11 students who choose the AP option for English 11 will pursue the AP English Language and Composition and English 11 curricula simultaneously. They will spend much more time learning the dark and potent arts of textual analysis and persuasion. The likes of Mary Oliver, Camille Paglia, E.B. White, and Robertson Davies lurk in this class.
AP English Literature & Composition 12
Grade 12 students who choose AP English Literature and Composition, in addition to covering the English 12 and Literature 12 curricula, are the kind of students who get excited about the textual differences between the quarto version of Hamlet and the folio version of Hamlet, and who look wistfully into bookshop window displays of 19th century Russian novels.
AP Art History 12
AP Art History is designed to provide the same benefits to secondary school students as those provided by an introductory college course in art history: an understanding and enjoyment of architecture, sculpture, painting and other art forms within historical and cultural contexts. In the course, students examine major forms of artistic expression from the past and present and from a variety of cultures. They learn to look at works of art critically, with intelligence and sensitivity, and to articulate what they see or experience.
Students examine the following spectrum: non-European artistic traditions, ancient through Medieval, and Renaissance to present.
AP Biology 12
Advanced Placement Biology is a two-year course that gives credit for both Biology 11 and Biology 12. A solid understanding of the additional, in-depth material taught in this course may provide students with first-year biology credit in university. Successful completion of the Biology 11AP program is a prerequisite for this course. Only serious science students with strong academic credentials should consider the AP option.
In the second year of the course (12AP) students travel to the Bamfield Marine Research Station on the West coast of the island to study ecology through a variety of field and laboratory projects.
The remainder of the first term is a study of human body systems before moving on in the second term to look at biology of plants and their evolution. Other advanced topics such as population genetics and the immune system are explored before a comprehensive review is conducted prior to the Advanced Placement exam in May.
AP Calculus AB 12
Students will embark upon a mathematical journey unlike any that they have previously experienced. They will learn the power of calculus as the mathematics that enables scientists, engineers, economists, and many others to model real-life, dynamic situations.
All students must possess a graphing calculator for use in this course, a course recommended for all students who will be required to take a calculus course (first year mathematics) at university. This is essentially a first year university course that will cover the following topics:
Functions and Historical perspective: A review of functions (this will be complemented by the Math 12 curriculum). Historical perspective. Origins of the calculus approach. Contributions by famous mathematicians.
Continuity and Limit Theory: Secants and tangents. Limiting position/limiting value/instantaneous value. Limit notation. One-sided and two sided limits. Continuous functions, discontinuities. Horizontal and vertical asymptotes, limits at infinity. Computation of limits.
The Derivative: Differentiation from first principles. Derivative notation: Techniques of differentiation: Power Rule, Product Rule, Quotient Rule (plus Reciprocal Rule). Higher derivative. The Chain Rule. Implicit differentiation.
Curve Analysis: Conditions for increasing, decreasing, concave up, concave down functions. Definition of point of inflection, critical point. Relative and absolute maxima/minima. First derivative test and second derivative test for classification of maxima/minima. Analysis of the properties of functions through: symmetry, intercepts, intervals of increase/decrease, infinite tendencies, asymptotes (horizontal, vertical, and oblique), concavity, points of inflection, periodicity.
Applications of the Derivative: Applied maximum and minimum problems. Related rates. Kinematics — motion along a line. Rolle's Theorem. Mean Value Theorem.
Specific Functions: Inverse functions. Continuity/differentiability of inverse functions. Logarithmic and exponential functions (review of log laws). Derivatives of exponential and logarithmic functions. Derivatives of trigonometric functions. Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions. L'Hopital's rule for indeterminate forms.
Integration: Analysis of the area problem. The indefinite integral. Integration formulae. Integral curves. Differential equations. Integration by substitution. The definite integral. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Average value of a function. Slope fields.
Areas & Volumes: Area under a curve. Area between two curves. Reversal of variables/axes. Volumes of rotation computed by slicing (disks and washers) and cylindrical shells.
Techniques for Integration: Integration by parts, trigonometric integrals, cyclic integrals, partial fractions. Enrichment: trigonometric substitution.
AP Chemistry 12
AP Chemistry 12 covers all of the learning outcomes for both the provincial Chemistry 12 syllabus and the additional topics required for the AP syllabus. The latter includes some of the material and background developed in Chemistry 11 but also topics such as thermodynamics, entropy and enthalpy, free energy and the relationship of changes in these quantities to chemical reactions. Reaction kinetics is treated at a higher level and linked mathematically and empirically to reaction mechanisms. Acid–base chemistry and redox chemistry also receive more in depth treatment as do the concepts bonding and equilibrium.
AP Comparative Government and Politics 12
This course covers an introduction to comparative politics, sovereignty, authority and power; political institutions; citizens, society and the state; political and economic change and public policy. Six countries form the core of the AP exam: China, Great Britain, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria and Russia. Students are encouraged to analyze and critique political systems and their historical records as well as gain an appreciation of media influences and cultural bias.
The political spectrum in all its hues and the machinery of government form a backdrop for discussions on current world events and future trends.
AP Computer Science Principles 12
In AP Computer Science Principles, students will develop computational thinking vital for success across all disciplines, such as using computational tools to analyze and study data and working with large data sets to analyze, visualize, and draw conclusions from trends. The course is unique in its focus on fostering student creativity. Students are encouraged to apply creative processes when developing computational artifacts and to think creatively while using computer software and other technology to explore questions that interest them. They will also develop effective communication and collaboration skills, working individually and collaboratively to solve problems, and discussing and writing about the importance of these problems and the impacts to their community, society, and the world.
Different from AP Computer Science A which is taught in Java, this course does not have a designated programming language. The programming languages that are most appropriate for the students will be selected and used in the course.
AP European History 12
The study of European history since 1450 introduces students to cultural, economic, political, and social developments that played a fundamental role in shaping the world in which they live. Without this knowledge, we would lack the context for understanding the development of contemporary institutions, the role of continuity and change in present-day society and politics, and the evolution of current forms of artistic expression and intellectual discourse.
In addition to providing a basic narrative of events and movements, the goals of AP European History are to develop (a) an understanding of some of the principal themes in modern European history, (b) an ability to analyze historical evidence and historical interpretation, and (c) an ability to express historical understanding in writing.
AP French Language & Culture 12
The AP French Language and Culture course emphasizes communication (understanding and being understood by others) by applying interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational skills in real-life situations. This includes vocabulary usage, language control, communication strategies, and cultural awareness. The AP French Language and Culture course strives not to overemphasize grammatical accuracy at the expense of communication. To best facilitate the study of language and culture, the course is taught almost exclusively in French.
The AP French Language and Culture course engages students in an exploration of culture in both contemporary and historical contexts. The course develops students’ awareness and appreciation of cultural products (e.g., tools, books, music, laws, conventions, institutions); practices (patterns of social interactions within a culture); and perspectives (values, attitudes, and assumptions).
AP Human Geography 12
The course provides a systematic study of human geography, including a look at the nature of population, cultural patterns and processes, the political organization of space, agricultural and rural land use. Industrialization and economic development within cities and urban land use are also explored. The course teaches the use of spatial concepts and landscape analysis to examine human organization of space. Software programs that integrate data sets with maps of various kinds are employed to help students image and display patterns of human interactions and changes in resources. An appreciation of how to use and interpret data sets and geographic models is a major outcome of the course including aerial and satellite imagery on scales that range from the local to global. The geography of religion, ethnicity and language are explored from a cultural and historical perspective together with man’s impact on the planet and its ecosystems. The challenges posed by population pressures and economic development are considered from a global perspective as well as through case studies that illustrate particular relationships and principles. Critical thinking and the ability to extract meaning from data are key skills that are developed throughout the course.
AP Macroeconomics 12
The AP Macroeconomics course provides students with a thorough understanding of the principles of economics and how economists use those principles to examine aggregate economic behavior. Students learn how the measures of economic performance, such as gross domestic product (GDP), inflation, and unemployment are constructed and how to apply them to evaluate the macroeconomic conditions of an economy. The course recognizes the global nature of economics and provides ample opportunities to examine the impact of international trade and finance on national economies. Various economic schools of thought are introduced as students consider solutions to economic problems.
AP Physics 2 Honours 12
AP Physics 2 is an algebra-based, introductory college-level physics course. Students cultivate their understanding of Physics through inquiry-based investigations as they explore topics such as fluid statics and dynamics; thermodynamics with kinetic theory; PV diagrams and probability; electrostatics; electrical circuits with capacitors; magnetic fields; electromagnetism; physical and geometric optics; and quantum, atomic, and nuclear physics.
Only serious science and mathematics students with strong academic credentials should consider the AP option. In order to cover all of the material for this broadly based course, students must be prepared to learn concepts at an accelerated rate.
AP Psychology 12
Psychologists are interested in every aspect of human thought and behaviour. This explains why there are more than a dozen sub-fields of contemporary psychology. Psychology AP introduces students to the systematic and scientific study of core concepts and theories concerning such mental processes as consciousness, learning, development, personality, testing, and intelligence. As students investigate normal and abnormal perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and actions, they will learn and employ the methods used by psychologists. This study should enable students to recognize psychological principles encountered in everyday situations, and to apply the concepts to explore their own lives.
AP Spanish Language & Culture 12
The AP Spanish Language and Culture course emphasizes communication (understanding and being understood by others) by applying interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational skills in real-life situations. This includes vocabulary usage, language control, communication strategies, and cultural awareness. The AP Spanish Language and Culture course strives not to overemphasize grammatical accuracy at the expense of communication. To best facilitate the study of language and culture, the course is taught almost exclusively in Spanish.
The AP Spanish Language and Culture course engages students in an exploration of culture in both contemporary and historical contexts. The course develops students’ awareness and appreciation of cultural products (e.g., tools, books, music, laws, conventions, institutions); practices (patterns of social interactions within a culture); and perspectives (values, attitudes, and assumptions).
AP Studio Art 12
This course is primarily for students who have demonstrated a high level of ability in 2D art and who may be interested in a post-secondary career in a related field such as art, photography, fashion or design. The course promotes a sustained investigation of all three aspects of portfolio development—Quality, Concentration, and Breadth. It enables students to develop mastery in concept, composition, and execution of drawing and 2-D design. In addition, students develop a variety of approaches in drawing and design and are able to demonstrate a range of abilities and techniques, solving problems and expanding ideas using different media. Students also study painting and drawing styles from the past and learn to incorporate elements of these into their own work. The course emphasizes making art as an ongoing process that involves the student in informed and critical decision making. This includes group and individual student critiques and instructional conversations with the teacher, enabling students to learn to analyze and discuss their own artworks and those of their peers.
AP World History 12
AP World History focuses on developing students’ abilities to think conceptually about world history from approximately 8,000 BCE to the present and apply historical thinking skills. Five themes of equal importance — focusing on the environment, cultures, state-building, economic systems, and social structures — provide areas of historical inquiry for investigation across different periods and regions. AP World History encompasses the history of the five major geographical regions of the globe: Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania, with special focus on historical developments and processes that cross multiple regions.
AP Seminar 11
AP Seminar is a foundational course that engages students in cross-curricular conversations that explore the complexities of academic and real-world topics and issues by analyzing divergent perspectives. Using an inquiry framework, students practice reading and analyzing articles, research studies, and foundational literary and philosophical texts; listening to and viewing speeches, broadcasts, and personal accounts; and experiencing artistic works and performances. Students learn to synthesize information from multiple sources, develop their own perspectives in research-based written essays, and design and deliver oral and visual presentations, both individually and as part of a team. Ultimately, the course aims to equip students with the power to analyze and evaluate information with accuracy and precision in order to craft and communicate evidence-based arguments.
Students engage in conversations about complex academic and real-world issues through a variety of lenses, considering multiple points of view. Teachers have the flexibility to choose one or more appropriate themes that allow for deep interdisciplinary exploration based on:
- Concepts or issues from other AP courses
- Student interests
- Local and/or civic issues
- Academic problems or questions
- Global or international topics
Exploring different points of view and making connections across disciplines are fundamental components of the AP Seminar experience. Students consider each topic through a variety of lenses and from multiple perspectives, many of which are divergent or competing. Analyzing topics through multiple lenses aids in interdisciplinary understanding and helps students gain a rich appreciation for the complexity of important issues. Teachers should encourage students to explore a topic through several of the following lenses: cultural and social, artistic and philosophical, political and historical, environmental, economic, scientific, futuristic, ethical.
AP Research 12
In AP Research 12, students further their skills acquired in AP Seminar 11 by understanding research methodology; employing ethical research practices; and accessing, analyzing, and synthesizing information as they address a research question. Students explore their skill development, document their processes, and curate the artifacts of the development of their scholarly work in a portfolio. The course culminates in an academic paper of 4000-5000 words and a presentation with an oral defense.
AP Environmental Science 12
A broad understanding of the basic principles of ecology and the physical and chemical systems of our planet underpins this course which then goes on to explore contemporary issues within this context. Students are encouraged to research and debate the latest data on climate change, desertification, habitat loss and species extinction. Projects focus on solutions to minimize the negative impacts of poor environmental practices on ecosystems. Students are also encouraged to take an active role in the school’s Environment Club and to participate in field trips.
AP Physics 1 Honours 11
AP Physics 1 is an algebra-based, introductory college-level physics course. Students cultivate their understanding of Physics through inquiry-based investigations as they explore topics such as Newtonian mechanics (including rotational motion); work, energy, and power; mechanical waves and sound; and introductory, simple circuits. The course is based on six Big Ideas, which encompass core scientific principles, theories, and processes that cut across traditional boundaries and provide a broad way of thinking about the physical world. The following are Big Ideas:
- Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure.
- Fields existing in space can be used to explain interactions.
- The interactions of an object with other objects can be described by forces.
- Interactions between systems can result in changes in those systems.
- Changes that occur as a result of interactions are constrained by conservation laws.
- Waves can transfer energy and momentum from one location to another without the permanent transfer of mass and serve as a mathematical model for the description of other phenomena.
In addition to covering all of the material taught in Physics 11, this course expands on some topics to the Grade 12 level. Successful completion of the additional material taught in this course may provide students with first-year physics credit in university. Only serious science and mathematics students with strong academic credentials should consider the AP option.
AP Statistics 12
The course introduces students to the major concepts and tools for collecting, analyzing, and drawing conclusions from data. There are four themes in the AP Statistics course: exploring data, sampling and experimentation, anticipating patterns, and statistical inference. Students use technology, investigations, problem solving, and writing as they build conceptual understanding.
AP United States History 12
According to the AP College Board, by enrolling in this course, “students develop and use the same skills, practices, and methods employed by historians: analyzing primary and secondary sources; developing historical arguments; making historical comparisons; and utilizing reasoning about contextualization, causation, and continuity and change over time.” By dividing United States history, from 1491 to present day, into nine historical periods and seven themes, students will develop an understanding of early exploration, colonialism and settlement. Then, embark on topics such as power and politics, national identity, culture and society, geography and global interactions. Students are encouraged to have already taken Social Studies 11 or another senior history course in preparation for AP United States History 12.